APPLYING NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS IN THE COBB RESEARCH LABORATORY

Fatimah L.C. Jackson, Ph.D. (fatimah.jackson@howard.edu) Christopher N. Cross, M.S., (chris.cross@bison.howard.edu)


The Cobb Research Laboratory houses two important collections, the W. Montague Cobb Collection and the New York African Burial Ground. Taken together, we have representative bioskeletal and soil samples on African Americans from the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries.  Traditionally, the study of these materials have been limited to the fields of biological anthropology and bioarchaeology; however, scientific breakthroughs in molecular biology, genetics and bioinformatics will allow us to advance these collections and apply next generation science for evidence-based historically contextualized studies. Therefore we plan to utilize computational biology and bioinformatic approaches, in addition to developing highly nuanced databases for the Cobb Research Laboratory. These advancements will promote novel findings and new science standards for future studies of other human skeletal collections.

Read More
USING THE CONTENTS OF THE COBB RESEARCH LABORATORY TO UNDERSTAND TODAY’S HEALTH DISPARITIES

Marisela B. Gomez, M.S., Ph.D., M.D., M.P.H. (mb-gomez@hotmail.com)

The investigation of the Cobb Collection and New York African Burial Ground Collection for patterns of stress-mediated changes in biomedical markers may offer some insight into the existence of health disparities today. Specifically, genetic analysis of the extent of DNA methylation of key genes which code for biological mediators, increased or decreased by stress, would help in understanding potential trans-generational epigenetic phenomena increasing the risk for diminished health outcomes in Afro-descendant people living in the U.S. today. Analysis for epigenetic changes or consistency of genes affecting the physiological pathway of stress in past and present Afro-descendants would help to understand risk factors for current health disparities. 

Read More
THE LEMBA: AN ORAL HISTORY AND Y CHROMOSOME REVIEW
Jeff Gaillard, M.A., (sprintgaillard@gmail.com)
The southern African Lemba have long maintain that they are a Jewish people directly descended from Jewish Babylonian exiles via Yemen. Cultural (linguistic) and Y-chromosome genetic analysis of their male lineages confirms a link to other Semitic-speaking peoples. The Lemba have also clearly have been influenced by neighboring their Bantu-speaking peoples but at their core, their historical Jewishness appears validated genetically. Disaggregating cultural and biological data allows us to better understand the specific history of the Lemba.  
Read More
SHIFTING ARAB-AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHICS AND HISTORICAL NARRATIVES: THE IMPLICATIONS FOR RELATIONS WITH AFRICAN AMERICANS

Rosina Hassoun, PhD. (Rhassoun@svsu.edu)

The challenges to the relationship between Arab-Americans and African-Americans include critical matters, including the history of Arab involvement in African slavery, Arab racial discrimination against Africans in the Middle East and the US, lack of understanding of Arab culture in the African American community, and the conflicts surrounding the Arab and Chaldean-owned gas stations and convenience stores in the Midwest. However, a little-known fact is the deep and longstanding relationships between the NAACP and other national African American organizations and the American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC).  Few people are aware of the role that African-American organizations played and continue to play in helping Arab-Americans create and maintain their main national civil rights organizations. The relationship between African and Arab-Americans appears to have improved since 9/11, with common concerns over Islamophobia and profiling. Dr. W. Montague Cobb, as a past president of the NAACP, would have been both interested and concerned about the relationship between African-Americans and Arab-Americans and therefore this discussion is apropos. 
Read More
Cobb Lab
THE SOCIOLOGICAL TRADITION OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Samantha R. Obuobi, MPH (Sammie.Obuobi@Yahoo.com)
Public Health is a field that enables health and healthcare dimensions of social structures-which must provide nurturing, equitable and protective support-through public policy education, applied research, and community service.  The primary goal of this field is to advance the overall health and wellness of individuals and populations with a critical focus on the needs and disadvantages of vulnerable populations.  In order to achieve this goal, studies that analyze and evaluate the issues of these populations must be performed.  Without an understanding of the various social, economic and cultural factors that determine an individual’s holistic well-being, healthcare policy will likely fall short of its larger objectives.  Issues involving race, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) have been proven to be accurate predictors of differential levels of disease, disability, and death in society.[1]  As a result, it can be argued that sociology, which can be defined as a study of the structural and institutional development of the social behavior of human society, serves as one of the foundations of public health.  This paper evaluates this argument by analyzing the critical role social science research has played in the development of the field of public health by examining the unfamiliar contributions of late 19th century premier sociologists, W. E. B. Du Bois and E. Franklin Frazier.
Read More
HISTORY AND GENETICS IN AFRICA: A NEED FOR BETTER COOPERATION BETWEEN THE TEAMS
Shomarka Omar Y. Keita, M.D. DPhil.
Genetic and other biological data have become prominent in the exploration of historical topics of varying time depths. Geneticists are writing an increasing number of papers in which they engage in the construction of “historical” narratives using genetics, or use genetic data in “historical”/chronological frameworks derived from other evidence. These works, at least in theory, encompass the integration and/or reconciliation of evidence from various subjects: historical linguistics, archaeology, ethnology, and history. Such studies are invariably challenging and problematic because of the effort needed to fully control new data and interpretations/conceptualizations, but also the older literature of multiple disciplines, and the terminology of those disciplines. They also require some familiarity with the paradigms and methods of conceptualization in other disciplines, and the debates within fields, like history and archaeology about interpretations and evidence. Incomplete integration or understanding may result in shortcomings which hurt the overall effort and call into question the final interpretations.  In this paper cases are explored in which broader and more effective use of non-genetic data and interdisciplinary collaboration may lead to more interpretive possibilities, data exploration, and hypotheses, while reducing potential errors. Some attention will be given to conceptualizing how various kinds of evidence should be ranked in exploring biological population histories, and how these may relate to culture and political histories.
           
Read More
THE LIFE OF DR. WILLIAM MONTAGUE COBB
Brittney Morning (Brittney.Morning@gmail.com) and Yah Kamei (Yahkamei@gmail.com)
Dr. William Montague Cobb made history when he became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in anthropology. With degrees in medicine and physical anthropology, he aimed to create a less racialized perspective on human life. His research showed the impact race could have on the heath of a person. This also made him an activist. Cobb was able to show that racism in America had an impact on the health and livelihood of African Americans. By summarizing and analyzing articles on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Cobb, this article introduces Dr. Cobb, discusses his research, and analyzes the impact of his research and the legacy he left behind through his work and activism. 
Read More
SUMMARY OF W. MONTAGUE COBB’S PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO
Jeff Gaillard, M.A. (sprintgaillard@gmail.com)
W. Montague Cobb’s seminal treatise published in 1942 stresses the import of conducting research on the human biology of the African American. In this work he emphasizes the scientific importance of such studies and calls for the engagement of more African American scholars in this research.
Read More
Excerpts from: ANTWANA

Lateef Salahuddin


ANTWANA is a semi-bioautographical love story written by the late Washington DC author Mr. Lateef Salahuddin. The excerpts provided give insight into the life of one segment of the underclass in the Washington DC area. Mr. Salahuddin lived during the time that Dr. Cobb was collecting individuals for the Cobb Collection. By the time of his demise in early 2015, Mr. Salahuddin had overcome drug and alcohol addiction and was moving forward with his literary career.

Read More
Research Abstracts
Applying Next Generation Science Standards In the Cobb Research Laboratory
Forensic Investigation on the Pelvic Anatomy of African American females during the late 19th to mid-20th Century
Hypertension genotypes in an historic African-American population dying from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and renal disorders 75 years ago: Comparison with contemporary hypertension genomes and health disparities
Prevalence and anatomical evidence of Treponemal Infection in the Cobb Collection
Autism in the Cobb Collection
Osteological Markers of Advanced Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Cobb Collection
Determining the Impacts of Tuberculosis on African Americans 75 Years Ago to Present
Chronic Kidney Disease and its Sequelae within the Cobb Collection: Osteological Lesions and Clinical Record of Evidence
Comparative Lower Limb Anatomy in the Cobb Collection and among Contemporary Age- and Sex-Matched Individuals
The Decline of Black Intellectual Spaces
Society and Space in the Cobb Collection
Read More